Andres Bonifacio bilang unang Pangulo

Hanggang ngayon, hindi pa rin natatapos ang usapin tungkol sa unang pangulo ng Pilipinas.

Itinuturo ng opisyal na kasaysayan–na bunga na kolonyal na edukasyon–na si Emilio Aguinaldo ang kauna-unahang pangulo. Ngunit may mga historyador, gaya nina Dr. Milagros Guerrero, na nagsasabing si Andres Bonifacio ang tunay na unang naluklok sa posisyong iyan na hanggang ngayon ay pinag-aagawan pa rin.

Ang tungkol sa pagiging unang pangulo ni Bonifacio ay isa sa mga isyung tatalakayin sa susunod na labas ng I-Witness. Nasa ibaba ang article mula sa GMANews.tv:

Kilala mo ba si Andres Bonifacio?

Dahil kakaunti lang ang mga sulat, dokumento at kahit litratong iniwan niya, misteryo para rin kung sino talaga ang Ama ng Rebolusyon.

Sa kabila nito, isa ang tiyak: maaring wala na ngang bayani, maliban kay Rizal, ang makatutumbas sa lalim at tindi ng paggunita ng mga Pinoy kay Bonifacio.

Para makasama sa kanyang paghahanap sa natatagong Bonifacio, sinamahan si Howie Severino ni Atty. Gary Bonifacio, apo ni Gat Andres sa kapatid niyang si Procopio at ang unang abogado sa pamilya.

Sa kanya, natuklasan ni Howie na ang pagpatay sa Supremo ng Katipunan ay nagkaroon ng mabigat na epekto sa pamilya na ramdam pa nila kahit ilang henerasyon na ang lumipas.

Ilang Bonifacio na raw ang nagpapalit ng pangalan at marami ang ayaw pa ring lumantad ngayon.

Habang binabagtas nila ang mundo ng kabataan ni Gat Andres, natuklasan ni Howie na ang kinilalang Bayani ng Masa ay marunong mag-Kastila at may mestizang ina, nagtrabaho para sa mga multinational companies, at hindi mahilig maglakad ng nakapaa tulad ng karaniwang imahe niya sa sining.

Pero dumating ang pinakamalaking rebelasyon matapos mabasa ni Howie and ilang piling dokumento at makausap ang ilang nag-aral ng kasaysayan: Si Bonifacio nga ba – at hindi si Emilio Aguinaldo – ang unang pangulo ng Pilipinas?

At totoo kayang ang kinikilalang unang halalan para sa pagka-Presidente ng ating bansa ay may bahid ng pandarayang hindi binabanggit sa mga libro ng kasaysayan?

Ang tunay na buhay ni Gat Andres Bonifacio, ilalantad na ngayong Lunes, Nobyembre 26, sa I-Witness – ang 2007 PMPC Star Award winner para sa Best Documentary Program at Best Documentary Program Hosts. (GMANews.tv)

Cinematography: Egay Navarro
Field director: JJ Villamarin
Field producer: Mavie Almeda
Executive producer: Ella Evangelista

24 thoughts on “Andres Bonifacio bilang unang Pangulo

  1. napaka-interesante nito.. I’ve always believed that Bonifacio is the rightful ‘national hero’.. Not that I dislike Rizal, I just think that Rizal’s over-hyped.

    Papanuorin ko ‘to kahit puyatan at maaga pa ang aking pasok. Sana may mag-upload sa youtube.

    Thanks for the info. ;)

  2. Actually kagaya ng sinabi ni Lalon di lang ang usapang tungkol kung sino talaga ang unag pangulo ng Pilipinas kundi sino ba talaga ang sapat maging pambansang pangulo.

    I’ll watch I witness on Monday that’s for sure

  3. Actually, hanggang ngayon naiiyak pa rin ako sa kinahinatnan ni Bonifacio. Nasan na nga ba ang bangkay nya at bakit wala sya sa sirkulasyon ng ating pera gayong siya ang namuno sa isa sa pinaka-mahalagang rebolusyon sa kasaysay ng Pilipinas?

    Nakalulungkot talaga..

  4. Uy, wow, kailan kaya ‘yung I-Witness na episode na ‘yun? Sana may makapagsabi agad. Maghahanap pa ako ng TV na nakakasagap ng Channel 7 kasi sa bahay namin walang Channel 7 :-(

    Naaalala ko pa nung history class nung college. Madalas ngang pagtalunan ‘yan. Sino nga ba ang naging unang Pangulo ng Republika ng Pilipinas? ‘Yung professor ko noon, mas naniniwala siya na si Bonifacio nga. At sa dami ng mga teoriya na narinig ko sa klase na ‘yun, naiisip ko na din na baka nga si Bonifacio talaga. May teoriya pa na pinapatay daw ni Aguinaldo si Bonifacio dahil nga sa pulitikal nila na pag-aaway. ‘Yun na nga siguro ‘yung tungkol sa kung sino ang dapat mamuno.

  5. Naniniwala ako na si Andres bonifacio ang kauna-unahang Pangulo ng Pilipinas. Ito ay pinatunayan ni Ed Aurelio Reyes sa kanyang librong “Bonifacio: Siya ba ay kilala ko?”

    Maliit, manipis at lumang-luma na ang librong ito. Hindi mo na nga ata mabibili ito sa mga bookstores ngayon. Kapag isinauli sa akin ay ibabahagi ko ang sinasabi ng librong iyon tungkol sa pagiging kauna-unahang Pangulo ng Pilipinas si Andres Bonifacio.

  6. Re #1 and #2: Sabi ng teacher namin sa PI 100 dati, malaki ang influence ng mode ng pagpatay kina Rizal at Boni sa pagpili sa Natl Hero (ie, pinili si Rizal dahil pinatay sya ng mga kastila… di magandang choice si Boni dahil ipinapatay sya ng kapwa Pilipino)

  7. I was never that interested in Bonifacio until I read Renato Constantino’s book on Philippine History back in KAS1 when I was still a freshie in UP. I support the controversial theory that Rizal was chosen by the Americans as our National Hero because he posed a lesser threat than Bonifacio back then. As we all know, pacifist si Rizal while Bonifacio was for revolution.

    for Aloloy: Perhaps Rizal’s death was more “heroic” in a way but I think their lives and their principles should be given more weight in considering their heroism rather than the manner they died. Rizal wasn’t really for freedom in the sense that he was willing to have the Philippines continue to be a colony of Spain as long as the “mother-country” agrees to certain amendments. Bonifacio was fighting for “democracy” and complete autonomy (if I remember right).

    This does not in away lessen the validity of Rizal’s heroism though. I just feel that Bonifacio deserves the “National Hero” title more.

    PS: I just love Howie! Total rabid fan! :)

  8. @Lalon: Fan ako pareho nina Bonifacio at Rizal. Ang sa akin lang, dapat magkapantay ang kinalalagyan nila sa ating kasaysayan. Mas mabuti sana kung magiging opisyal ang pagkilala kay Bonifacio bilang unang pangulo ng bansa.

    @Flowell: Sama-sama taong magpuyat. I-twit at i-blog natin, ha?

    @Prudence: Bukas na gabi na yung episode. Terible talaga yung pagpapatay ng mga alagad ni Aguinaldo sa Supremo. Parang yung ginagawa ngayon sa mga kritiko ng gobyerno.

    @Jhay: Sabi ni Reyes, may isusulat din dapat na libro sina Prof. Guerrero. Di ko sigurado kung natuloy. Hingin natin ang permiso ni Reyes para gawing e-book. :)

    @aloyloy: Parang ganyan din ang nabasa ko sa “Veneration without understanding” ni Renato Constantino.

    @Hazel: Dapat magkaroon tayo ng pic kasama si Sir Howie sa office. Hehe.

  9. dapat nga si andress bonifacio. dahil sa history natin sia ang pangulo ng KKK which is a revolutionary covernment against spaniards. naging pangulo lang naman si aguinaldo dahil greedy sia. :D

  10. i’m lucky to know what’s the story behind the issue of the first philippine president because its my project…as a 12 yrs old student,,its a pleasure to know something about our history…for me gat andres bonifacio is the 1st president….i idolize him..

  11. Kay Schumey: Sabi nga sa isang article ni Ambeth Ocampo na nabasa ko dati, y’ong nangyari sa Tejeros Convention ang “the first dagdag-bawas.” Nag-eleksiyon na puro tauhan nila’t kapwa mayayaman ang boboto, mga tarantado talaga. May kamalian si Bonifacio sa pagpayag sa eleksiyon, pero gago pa rin ang kampo ni Aguinaldo.

  12. @psychogoddess: Hmmm, meron na rin kami, pero video lang ata. :p

    @Schumey: Hehe, napapaghalata na sila.

    @neil: Nagkakasundo tayo sa puntong iyan. :)

    @maria fe: Salamat sa pagbabasa at panonood tungkol kay Gat Andres Bonifacio! Mabuhay ka :)

    @Alex: Nag-twitter ako noong isang araw tungkol dyan:

    Mga alipores ni Aguinaldo, nag-Hello Garci rin? – http://tinyurl.com/yuomh7 12:55 PM November 26, 2007 from TwitterFox

  13. A TRIBUTE TO ANDRES BONIFACIO AS COMMUNICATION SPECIALIST
    Written By Eero P. Brillantes, Ella Kristina D. Domingo, Les dM. Coronel, Geraldine T. Brillantes as their contribution to the greatness of Andres Bonifacio as the father of the Philippine Revolution http://www.mindbullet.org

    Andres Bonifacio, the supremo, a self-taught revolutionary, a national hero. Today, we celebrate Bonifacio Day. For other national heroes, their “day” is celebrated on their death, while for Andres Bonifacio, we celebrate his “day” on his birthday because he was killed by his own countryman: a Filipino named Makapagal (Seasite, no date).
    Bonifacio’s masterful use of his communication skills triggered the downfall of the three and a half century Spanish rule over the Philippines. Knowledgeable of spoken Spanish and English languages, Andres was able to conceptualize and apply in the Philippine setting the tenets culled from the French Revolution, as well as literature which elaborated on brotherhood, equality and freedom.
    The website www. bakbakan.com dedicates a whole web page on Andres Bonifacio and how communication has molded his principles. Other websites such as Wikipedia, and the SEAsite (Northern Illinois University) made similar claims.
    Lack of formal education never stopped Andres Bonifacio to continue learning and practicing his knowledge. He capitalized on his spoken languages – English and Spanish; and his reading skills to learn the principles of rights and freedom. He read about history, politics, law and religion. Ambeth Ocampo, a historian, mentioned that among Andres Bonifacio’s reading list were: Lives of the Presidents of the United States”; “History of the French Revolution” (two volumes); “La Solidaridad” (three volumes); “Noli Me Tangere”; “El Filibusterismo”; “International Law”; “Civil Code”; “Penal Code”; “Ruins of Palmyra”; “Religion within the Reach of All”; “The Bible” (five volumes); “Les Miserables” by Victor Hugo; and “The Wandering Jew” by Eugene Sue (taken from http://www.seasite.niu.edu).
    Aside from being a voracious reader, Bonifacio wrote poetry, and was a moro-moro actor – very typical of great communicators.
    Based on http://www.bakbakan.com, Bonifacio was probably one of the greatest motivational writers and speakers of his generation, along with Dr. Jose Rizal. Using his native language, Bonifacio wrote with full passion and compassion.
    “In his essay “What the Filipinos Should Know,” Bonifacio wrote in Tagalog: “Reason tells us that we cannot expect anything but more sufferings, more treachery, more insults, and more slavery. Reason tells us not to fritter away time for the promised prosperity that will never come….Reason teaches us to rely on ourselves and not to depend on others for our living. Reason tells us to be united…that we may have the strength to combat the evils in our country.”
    Bonifacio also wrote about how the Filipinos were tortured by the Spaniards. They were bound, kicked, and hit with gun butts. They were electrocuted and hung upside down like cattle. He said that Filipino prisoners were “thrown into the sea…shot, poisoned….”
    To further illucidate his mastery of verbal and non-verbal communication as a way to agitate for social upheaval, Bonifacio intricately organized an underground movement patterned after the “triangle organizing” concept. In contemporary times, the “triangle” took on many permutations including cell “organizing” for activists, and multi-level marketing as product distribution channels for scams and legitimate businesses. Bonifacio and his disciples couched his organizing work in millenarian revolutionary language and rituals. Conceptual combinations of pagan mysticism, folk Christianity, and symbols/rituals culled from the freemasonry movement provided the organizational culture. The blood compact ritual and the tearing up of the cedula provided heavy drama to the whole effort. It can be deduced that Bonifacio’s organizational communication acumen as applied to revolution was indeed effective. A whole book entitled Pasyon at Rebolusyon by Renato Lleto was dedicated to the subject matter of conjuncture and national consciousness from the point of view of the critical mass during the Spanish occupation. It theorized on folk culture, folk Christianity, and revolutionary fervor against colonial rule as defining ingredients in the Philippine revolution.

    The Beginning
    On the night of July 7, 1892 – the same day he heard that Rizal had been exiled to Dapitan – Bonifacio met his friends secretly, at a house on Azcarraga Street (now Claro M. Recto) in Tondo. Together with his two friends Ladislao Diwa and Teodoro Plata, he formed the first triangle of a secret society which bore the initials K.K.K. The three letters stood for Kataastaasan Kagalang-galang na Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan, or Katipunan
    Instead of using the old Spanish spelling of the letter “c,” Bonifacio used the Tagalog spelling of “k.” Rizal had suggested the change in an article published two years earlier in the newspaper La Solidaridad. The “k,” pronouched ka, was based on the ancient Tagalog script (I). The letter “K” symbolizes revolt by bringing forth into attention that the Filipino culture existed before Spanish hegemony.

    “Katipuneros” : Symbologists
    The Katipunan thrived as an underground society through the use of secret codes and passwords. Keeping secrets from the Spaniards during those times was very difficult. To keep the whole organization from being discovered, Katipunan employed the triangle method: a system of enlistment wherein a recruiter would ask only two members to join. Only the recruiter would know the names of both recruits while the recruits would not each other. Thus, the organization is encapsulated into three-man units and a direct command chain resulting to a very efficient personnel management.
    Though some members were middle class, the Katipunan membership is dominantly from the poor and working classes, thus its membership grew to the thousands.
    The Katipunan had three aims:
    • First, it wanted to free the Philippines from Spain, by force of arms if necessary. Its members, called Katipuneros, were taught to make and use weapons.
    • Second is the the moral, or spiritual, aim. The Katipunan saw all men, rich or poor, as equals.
    • Third, the Katipuneros were taught to care for one another in times of sickness and need. The society took care of its sick. If a member died, the Katipunan helped to pay the cost of a simple funeral.
    After October 1892, all Katipuneros could recruit as many members as they could.
    To prove courage and sincerity, any man who wanted to join the Katipunan had to pass a number of tests. One of them are answering these questions:
    (1) In what condition did the Spaniards find the Filipino people when they came?
    (2) In what condition do they find themselves now?
    (3) What hope do the Filipino people have for the future?
    The final test was the “sandugo” (blood compact). The recruit was asked to make a small cut on his left forearm with a sharp knife, then sign the Katipunan oath in his own blood. Afterwards, the new member chose a symbolic name for himself. For example, Bonifacio was called “May pag-asa” (Hopeful).

    Women and Revolution
    About thirty women, limited to wives, daughters and close relatives of the Katipuneros, joined the Katipunan. The women’s chapter of the Katipunan was formed in July 1893. However, the women did not have to seal their membership with a blood compact. During Katipunan meetings, they wore green masks, and white sashes with green borders. Sometimes they carried revolvers or daggers. They usually served as look-outs in the outer sala (living room) while the men held their secret meetings in the backroom.
    The Discovery
    The Katipunan was discovered before they were ready for a full-armed struggle. Father Mariano Gil, the Augustinian parish priest of Tondo, learned it from Teodoro Patino, an unhappy member of the Katipunan. The Spanish police moved quickly to stop the revolution. Many Filipinos were arrested, jailed, and shot. But Bonifacio knew that the die had been cast. There was no turning back. The time had come for the Filipino people to engage the enemy in battle.
    Bonifacio met with other Katipunan leaders in a place called Pugadlawin, on August 23, 1896. They tore up their cedulas (residence tax papers) and cried “Long Live the Philippines!” They vowed to fight the Spaniards down to the last man.
    Synthesis
    Following these stories are insights that make Andres Bonifacio, one heck of a communicator. The organization of Katipunan is filled with symbols and communication models that are actually perfect means in delivering messages and understanding among its members. His target members, the poor and Filipinos, showed that a strong critical mass against Filipino oppression was more than felt during that time.
    Interactions, tactics and strategies are highly based on communication patterns and symbols. Employing the triangle method, asking patriotic questions, The Sandugo and the Cry of Pugadlawin are symbolic actions of freedom and revolt. The role of women in the revolution was never neglected. More importantly, Bonifacio started all these with the communication skills basics: spoken language, reading, and writing. Though Jose Rizal and his cohorts had formal education, Bonifacio, a natural genius, did well very well through self-study. Bonifacio, was able to listen to the cries of the oppressed Filipinos.
    Connecting meanings in among the members of an organized society is essential to its potential success. Bonifacio, an idealist, was able to apply his readings into a historic revolution. Having tangible focus, his faith on the Filipinos was so immense and he was somehow thought of a as a fool by the formally educated. Bonifacio knew what Filipinos wanted that time. And through his strategic plans, innate communication skills, he was able to organize the poor, the uneducated, the masses and together, they fought for freedom. Without the Katipunan, did you ever ask where will we be now?

    References
    SEAsite, Northern Illinois University,
    (http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/Cynthia/festivals/bonifacio_day.htm)

  14. yeah men……… i think that he deserve the title national hero because he’s so brave he fought for the sake of the filifinos and he also deserve the title of the first president of our ruined country… guys intindihin nyo ang galing no

  15. yeah men……… i think that he deserve the title national hero because he’s so brave he fought for the sake of the filifinos and he also deserve the title of the first president of our ruined country… guys intindihin nyo ang galing noI was never that interested in Bonifacio until I read Renato Constantino’s book on Philippine History back in KAS1 when I was still a freshie in UP. I support the controversial theory that Rizal was chosen by the Americans as our National Hero because he posed a lesser threat than Bonifacio back then. As we all know, pacifist si Rizal while Bonifacio was for revolution.

    for Aloloy: Perhaps Rizal’s death was more “heroic” in a way but I think their lives and their principles should be given more weight in considering their heroism rather than the manner they died. Rizal wasn’t really for freedom in the sense that he was willing to have the Philippines continue to be a colony of Spain as long as the “mother-country” agrees to certain amendments. Bonifacio was fighting for “democracy” and complete autonomy (if I remember right).

    This does not in away lessen the validity of Rizal’s heroism though. I just feel that Bonifacio deserves the “National Hero” title more.

    PS: I just love Howie! Total rabid fan!

  16. wlah akong hlig sa pagbabasa ng mga talambuhay ng mga bayani……,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,poe prang nag-iba pra bang pinipilit akong magbasa kyah eto kilala ko na lahat ng bayanibaka me ultooo
    ooooooo

  17. Hello po!

    Lalon: agree ako napapaiyak din ako kapag nakikta ko yung mga pagtrato ng generation namin kay andres bonifacio. lagi ko siya nirerelate sa projects ko sa school kaya ako nandito para kumuha po ng info. napanood ko ito noon pa tapos ngayon na relate ko na sha ng todo.

  18. bakit di nila isulat ang totoong nangyari noong mayo 10 kay gat andres bonifacio kung paano siya pinalakad ng nakatali ang mga kamay at paa, kung paano tinaga sa mukha ang kanyang kapatid at ang panghahalay ng mga tao ni aguinaldo sa asawa ni bonifacio sa tingin ninyo sino ang karapatdapat na maging tunay na bayani ng pilipinas noong araw pa man ayaw ng mayayamang pilipino na may mamuno ang isang makamasa sa takot na mahati ang kanilang lupain.

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